Setup times arise if the machining centres need to be converted from one product type to another. As such, the setup time encompasses all of the machine downtimes. In other words, it refers not only to the time that it takes to equip/convert the machines, but also the time during which the machine is not being used, e.g. lining up sales orders or looking for tools and equipment. Optimising the setup process is also a key factor in achieving high productivity and economic success, particularly for small batches. When investing in a new machining centre, you need to focus on the entire setup process as early as the planning phase.